Eighty percent increase in fluency

Frequency altered feedback

shadowed speech and delayed auditory feedback
shadowed speech and delayed auditory feedback

Frequency altered feedback

The finding that fluency can be improved when a speaker hears his voice at a different pitch (fundamental frequency) was originally reported by Howell, ElYaniv, and Powell (1987), and subsequently in a number of papers by Kalinowski, and colleagues (e.g., Kalinowski, Armson, Roland-Mieszowski, & Stuart, 1993; Kalinowski, Armson, Stuart, Hargrave, & MacLeod, 1995)
50 Stuttering and clutteringThis finding has been associated with the chorus effect, where, as noted above, increased fluency is thought to arise from having external speech signals provide a type of external speech template, thus tricking the brain into believing that the speech signal is exogenous, or not selfproduced. Note also that similar claims have been made for the increased fluency often reported when the speaker adopts a foreign accent, or is acting out a role. Here too the brain may not be recognizing the speech as the primary “self-produced” one
There is evidence to suggest that FAF is more effective in reducing stuttering when used in conjunction with DAF , and that responses to FAF in isolation can be quite individualistic. Ingham, Moglia, Frank, Ingham, and Cordes (1997) in a series of single subject experiments found one speaker to receive temporary benefit from the technique, whilst another found no change in fluency. Another showed a minimal improvement in fluency, but a deterioration in speech quality; a final speaker made significant and sustained improvement

 

 

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