Before I delve deeper into the basic facts about stuttering, Io like to touch briefly on the personal side of the problem. Some of you may never have had a friend who stutters or may never have worked with a stutterer in treatment, so I will present several examples of what stuttering can be like. Even if you are familiar with stuttering, these brief sketches, which portrayfour individuals who differ in age and in their accom­ modations to stuttering, may expand your sense of what stut­ tering is like for the person who experiences it.



in the 1990s a number of changes brought back DAF and as we shall see later, also frequency altered feedback as a viable therapeutic device.
A primary force was the work of Kalinowski and colleagues, who demon-strated that DAF could work effectively at normal and even fast rates of speech (Kalinowski et al., 1993, 1995). An additional factor was that DAF devices were now becoming more portable, and tiny in-the-ear devices have become commercially available in recent years. The combination of these factors has led to a rather different approach to the use of DAF

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